1801-1875 ZECHARIA FRANKEL (Germany) 
"Father of Conservative Judaism". As a moderate reformer, he objected to the changing of tradition. His views became known as "Historical Judaism". Frankel advocated an evolving Judaism which would only permit changes which were not in variance with the spirit of historical Judaism. 
As such he was against transferring all the prayers to the vernacular.
 As resident of the Breslau Seminary from 1854 until his death, he published many works, including a treatise on the Septuagint. His works include an examination of the Jewish oath Die Eidesleistung bei den Juden, an introduction to the MishnaDarkhei ha-Mishnah and an introduction to the Jerusalem Talmud Mevo ha-Yerushalmi. 
These records are from the Carroll County Circuit Court in Mt. Carroll, Illinois For information on requesting copies please go to Carroll County Circuit Court.
 Rothchild, Henry Germany 8 May 1854 2 57 Carroll, IL 
I Rothchild, Henry Germany 21 Oct 1856 2 84 Carroll, IL
 O Rothschild, Mark Wirtemberg 31 Mar 1856 2 98 Carroll, IL

A family of scholars and Talmudists, the earliest known member of which was Koppel Fränkel (1650), the richest Viennese Jew of his time. In 1670, when the Jews were banished from Vienna, Koppel Fränkel's children settled at Fürth; only one of his four daughters was married—Esther, to Benjamin Wolf b. Asher Anschel Spiro, preacher and head of the yeshibah of Prague, and a descendant of Jehiel Michael Spiro, who flourished about 1560. The children from this alliance, the first of whom
wasSimon, chieh () of the community of Prague, bore the compound name of Fränkel-Spiro. A short time later another alliance was made between these two families: Jacob Benjamin Wolf Fränkel, of Fürth, a descendant of Koppel Fränkel on the male side, married Rebekah, daughter of Elijah Spiro, a cousin of Benjamin Wolf, the founder of the Fränkel-Spiro branch. This latter branch also subsequently married into the main Fränkel branch, and from this triple alliance descended the well-known scholar Zechariah Frankel, whose father adoptedthe name of "Frankel." The pedigree of Zechariah Frankel may therefore be constructed as on the preceding page.
Head of the Jewish community in Prague for two decades beginning May 20, 1724, and a stanch defender of his oppressed coreligionists; died June 9, 1745. He was wealthy by inheritance, and his extensive business interests brought him often into contact with the great of the land; he thus gained a knowledge of the laws of the country which raised him high above the mass of his brethren. He founded an orphan asylum, and won lasting popularity by elevating the standard of the Jewish school system. He was, however, very fond of display, and not free from ambition. At the birth of Archduke—afterward Emperor—Joseph in April, 1741, he furnished at his own expense a costly public festival and parade in the Jewry of Prague, on which occasion he appeared in a carriage drawn by six horses and surrounded by footmen and horse-guards. This fondness for show aroused the envy of the mob, which some years later found vent in unrestrained pillage of the Jewry, several Jews being murdered and many more severely wounded. Following upon this came Maria Theresia's order expelling all Jews from Bohemia. Simon Wolf Fränkel, who was insulted and slandered, collapsed completely under the burden of mental and spiritual troubles. Only a few days before his death he signed a petition for aid addressed to the London Jews. 
His successor as the head of the community was ason of his brother Koppel, Israel Fränkel. His valuable services to the community in advancing the home manufacture of silk, and in improving the "Invalidenbräuhaus," of which he for a long time was the lessee, were recognized by the Bohemian "Landesgubernium." Israel Fränkel, who was a devoted student of the Mishnah, died in his birth-place, Prague, on April 15, 1767
The oldest and most important monthly devoted to the science of Judaism. It was founded by Zacharias Frankel in Dresden in the year 1851, in continuation of his "Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des Judenthums," which had been suppressed in 1846. Frankel believed that the objects striven for in the contest of 1848 had been attained, and that the Jews no longer had separate political interests. He therefore considered that the time had arrived for them to undertake a scientific investigation of their history and literature. 
The first seventeen volumes of the "Monatsschrift were edited by Frankel, who was succeeded by the historian Heinrich Graftz. The latter edited vols. xviii. to xxxvi. inclusive, being assisted by Pinkus Frankl of Berlin in vols. xxxiii. to xxxv. Publication was stopped in 1887, but was resumed in 1892, with M. Braun and David Kaufmann as joint editors (vols. xxxvii. to xliii.). Upon Kaufmann's death (1899) Braun became sole editor. Since Jan., 1904, the "Monatsschrift" has appeared as the organ of the Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaft des Judenthums. 
The "Monatsschrif" was first published in Dresden. Some volumes were then issued at Krotoschin and some at Berlin; but the greatest number appeared in Breslau. A complete table of contents for the first seventeen volumes is appended to vol. xvii., and a similar table for the years 1869 to 1887 is given at the end of vol. xxxvi. This table has been published separately also.

Institution in Breslau for the training of rabbis, founded under the will of Jonas Fränckel, and opened in 1854. Commercial Councilor ("Kommerzienrath") Jonas Fränckel, a descendant of a rabbinic family, and a very wealthy bachelor, who devoted his entire fortune to philanthropic and educational purposes, left a bequest for the establishment of a training-school for rabbis and Jewish teachers. Franckel was president of the Breslau congregation, and an enthusiastic supporter of Geiger, who had no doubt inspired the bequest; and it was probably the founder's intention that Geiger should be the president of the institution (Abraham Geiger, "Leben in Briefen," p. 129, Berlin, 1878). The executors of the Fränckel legacy felt, however, that an institution which should be presided over by a man of Geiger's advanced views would not gain the confidence of the congregations; they therefore called Zacharias Frankel to the presidency (Feb. 7, 1853). Owing to some legal complications the seminary could not be opened until Aug. 10, 1854, although its constitution had been confirmed by royal order of Aug. 31, 1847. Frankel selected as teachers Heinrich Graetz and Jacob Bernays, to whom Manuel Joël and B. Zuckermann were added as assistants, both being soon afterward promoted to the rank of regular teachers. 
Original Departments. 
The institution had at the beginning three divisions, namely: the regular rabbinical department, which admitted only such students as were entitled to enter the university; the preparatory department, receiving students who possessed the knowledge required for entrance to the "Secunda" of a Prussian gymnasium; and a training-school for religious teachers. For a teacher's diploma a three-year course of study was required, while the rabbinical course required seven years. The teachers' seminary, which in the beginning was very well attended, soon declined, and in 1867 was closed on account of lack of students. The preparatory department, originally necessary because the students of the seminary came largely from yeshibot and had no secular training, became superfluous with the increase of students having regular gymnasium education, and was closed in 1887; so that to-day the seminary has only one department, and provides for theological training only. 
The administrators of the Fränckel estate inaugurated the seminary with a capital of 100,000 thalers ($72,000) apart from the building and the library; for a teachers' pension fund the sum of 3,000 thalers was set aside; and a stipendiary fund for students was started with 5,000 thalers. The last-named fund received many additions in later years, and special foundations were created for graduates who had not obtained positions, e.g., the Director Frankel Stiftung, founded on the occasion of Zacharias Frankel's seventieth birthday (1861), and a similar foundation on the occasion of Graetz's seventieth birthday (1887); two prizes, one founded by Joseph Lehmann (1855) with a capital of 1,800 marks, and one by David Kaufmann (1895), in memory of David Rosin, with a capital of 4,000 kronen. 
Curriculum and Staff. 
The subjects taught at the rabbinical seminary were: Talmudic literature, by the president ("Director"); history and exegesis, by Graetz; philosophy of religion, by Bernays; homiletics and Midrash, by Joël; and the calendar by Zuckermann, who was also librarian. This division was changed in details when the teaching staff underwent changes, but remained the same in its general principles. In 1863 Joël became rabbi of Breslau and was succeeded by Jacob Freudenthal, who retained his position at the seminary until 1888, when he was appointed professor of philosophy at Breslau University. In 1866 Bernays was called as professor of philosophy and chief librarian to the University of Bonn, and he was succeeded at the seminary by David Rosin, who held the post until his death (Dec. 31, 1894). After Zacharias Frankel's death (Feb. 13, 1875), Leyser Lazarus was elected president and served as such from Sept. 23, 1875, until his death (April 16, 1879). 
After Lazarus' death the administration changed. David Joël, brother of Manuel Joël, was called to the institution as professor of the Talmudic branches, with the title of "Seminarrabbiner," and the presidency was to alternate between him and Professor Graetz as the senior of the faculty. Joël, who entered upon the duties of his office Jan. 1, 1880, died Sept. 9, 1882; and since his death the presidency of the seminary has been held in turn by the members of the faculty. Joël was succeeded as "Seminarrabbiner" by Israel Lewy, who has held the chair of Talmudic literature since May 1, 1883. Since the death of Graetz (Sept. 7, 1891) Marcus Brann has occupied the chair of history, teaching at the same time exegesis and Talmudic codes. After the death of Zuckermann (Dec. 17, 1891) his position as teacher was not filled, Brann assuming the duties of librarian. Upon Rosin's death (Dec. 31, 1894), Saul Horovitz was called (Jan., 1896). He teaches philosophy of religion, homiletics, and some of the Talmudic branches; so that the present (1904) staff of professors comprises only three teachers (Lewy, Brann, and Horovitz). 
Since its inauguration the seminary has had 464 students and has graduated 119 rabbis. A number of other officiating rabbis, while not graduates of the institution, have received part of their training there. They came from various countries of Europe and from the United States, and have occupied prominent positions throughout Europe and America. The first graduation of teachers took place in 1857; the first graduation of rabbis, in 1862, on Jan. 27, the anniversary of the death of Jonas Fränckel, the founder of the institution. The average number of students is about 40, the highest number having been 58 in 1866. The library, which was begun with the collection of Leon V. Saraval of Triest, and has been augmented by various important donations, numbers, according to the latest report, 22,332 printed volumes and 212 volumes of manuscripts.Of the students quite a number have acquired considerable reputation as scientific authors; among them may be mentioned Perles, Güdemann, Rahmer, Bacher, Kaufmann, A. Sehwarz, and Philip Bloch. 
The institution has remained faithful to the spirit of its first president, Zacharias Frankel, the principal exponent of historical Judaism. It proclaims freedom in theoretical research, but demands of its disciples a faithful adherence to the practises of traditional Judaism. Of existing seminaries it is the oldest, in view of the fact that the Séminaire Rabbinique of Paris was hardly more than a yeshibah before its removal from Metz. At all events the Jüdisch-Theologisches Seminar was the first scientific institution for the training of German rabbis; and as such it has been the type for those founded in Budapest and Vienna.

Bibliography: Zur Gesch. des Jüdisch-Theologischen Seminars, in Programm zur Eröffnung des Jüdisch-Theologischen Seminars, Breslau, n.d.; 
Das Jüdisch Theologische Seminar zu Breslau am Tage Seines Fünf und Zwanzigjährigen Bestehens, Breslau, n.d.; 
the annual reports of the institution, each of which contains a scientific essay; and the periodicals, chiefly the Monatsschrift, from 1853.D.
1862 September 18, JACOB FRANKEL (USA)